vJASS OOP Lesson One of the most important things to JASS that vJASS introduces is the ability to use Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) features. The most basic OOP feature that vJASS offers is the struct, the equivalent of a class or an object in other languages (such as Java or Python). For the most part, I've seen people use structs as basically data packages: an easy way to store abstract data types since all structs can be treated as integers no matter what data is contained within them. While this nice perk is undoubtedly an invaluable asset, it's only the beginning of how useful structs really are. And that's where this tutorial comes in; it will (hopefully) teach you about the OOP concepts in vJASS so that you may exploit it to make your coding easier in the future. IMPORTANT: This tutorial assumes that you have background in normal JASS (not vJASS) programming. Table of Contents Debunking Some Myths Struct Instantiation and Instance Members Destroying Structs and onDestroy() Static Members Encapsulation Interfaces Struct Inheritance Merging Inheritance with Interfaces Overriding Methods super typeid and getType() Function Objects Function Interfaces Glossary of Terms Appendix Use of Implicit this Use of Implicit Struct Type Names Use of this as a Local Variable Identifier Struct Storage Size Credits Debunking Some Myths I've come across many people who have the idea that OOP somehow makes their code run more efficiently at runtime, and this is why they should use OOP. Not true. Perhaps my CS professor said it best: "If you ask people why OOP is useful, most will say things about inheritance and polymorphism and stuff like that, but in the end it's really just about making programming code easier." Using OOP doesn't necessarily make your code run faster or allow you to anything that couldn't be done using...say...procedural programming. In fact, vJASS is simply another layer of abstraction built on top of JASS, which is a procedural scripting language, so obviously JASS is capable of doing everything vJASS can do. It's just that vJASS lets you do certain things with 50 lines of code while JASS would require several hundred. Struct Instantiation and Instance Members Structs are the heart of vJASS's OOP features. Since learning by example is usually a good way to go, here's a simple struct: Sample struct Code (vJASS): struct Hero endstruct Indeed, this is about as simple as you can get. Here we see the syntax for declaring a struct type, often simply referred to as simply a struct. The above struct has a name: Hero. Therefore we can say that the above struct is a struct of type Hero, or a struct called Hero. The basic concept behind structs is that they represent some type of object. These objects can be closely related to physical or game objects, or they can be more abstract in nature. Our example struct, Hero, is supposed to represent...what else?...a hero! An important property of structs is that they define a data type. Just as integer, real, unit, and location are all data types in JASS, struct types are also data types. Therefore you can do things like: Struct data types Code (vJASS): function Locals takes nothing returns nothing local Hero hero // this variable is now able to store a Vector endfunction function Parameters takes Hero h returns nothing // this function can now take a parameter of type Hero endfunction function Returning takes nothing returns Hero // this function returns a Hero endfunction Besides its own struct type, struct instances can also be treated as integers. So any variable of type integer can reference any struct instance, and any function returning an integer can return a reference to a struct instance. Naturally, this leads to the question: How can a Hero be stored in a variable, or passed to a function, or returned by one? The answer is that structs can be created, or instantiated. Instantiation of a struct simply means creating a new copy, or instance, of the struct in memory. This is analogous to creating new units or locations, for example, in normal JASS. So how are structs instantiated? We can do it by calling [struct name].create(). Doing so returns a new instance of the struct that can be saved in a variable to be referenced for future use. For example: Instantiating Structs Code (vJASS): function Instantiation takes nothing returns nothing local Hero hero = Hero.create() // hero now references an instance of Hero endfunction What exactly happens when a struct is instantiated? A special function of sorts is actually called. This function is called the struct's constructor. Normally, all the function does is create and return a new instance of a struct, but in fact we can define our own constructor inside of a struct. Instantiating Structs Code (vJASS): struct Hero static method create takes player p, real x, real y returns Hero local Hero new = Hero.allocate() call CreateUnit(p, 'H000', x, y, 270.0) return new endmethod endstruct We have expanded Hero to include a user-defined constructor as well as some other things. The signature of the constructor is: static method create takes player p, real x, real y returns Hero A constructor may take any parameters (in the case of Hero it takes a player and two reals), but its return type must be the struct type that it belongs to (in this case: Hero). By convention the constructor of a struct is always named create() but this is not strictly enforced. A constructor also must always make a call to [struct name].allocate(). It is this call that will allocate a new instance of the struct. If you define your own constructor for a struct, then every time you call the constructor you must make sure to pass the correct parameters to it: Constructor Parameters Code (vJASS): function Instantiation takes player p, real x, real y returns nothing local Hero heroOne = Hero.create(p, x, y) local Hero heroTwo = Hero.create() // does not work anymore endfunction That's enough about constructors for now. The constructor for Hero creates a unit. It would be nice if we could keep track of that unit. And it turns out we can: Instance Fields Code (vJASS): struct Hero unit u static method create takes player p, real x, real y returns Hero local Hero new = Hero.allocate() set new.u = CreateUnit(p, 'H000', x, y, 270.0) return new endmethod endstruct Notice the addition of what looks like a variable inside the struct: u. This is called an instance field or instance variable. Like any other variable, it can store data appropriate for its data type. What is special about instance fields is that each instance of a struct can store different data in the same fields. So for example, one instance of Hero may have unit A stored in its u field while another instance may have unit B stored in its u field. Because the same field in different instances can store different data, accessing instance fields requires that you specify which instance of a struct you are accessing them from. To see the syntax for this, take a look at the constructor for Hero: Accessing Instance Fields Code (vJASS): static method create takes player p, real x, real y returns Hero local Hero new = Hero.allocate() set new.u = CreateUnit(p, 'H000', x, y, 270.0) // <=== return new endmethod Accessing an instance field requires that you first provide a reference to the specific instance from which you want to access the field (in this case it is the local variable new). Then follows a dot (.) and then the field identifier (in this case u). This syntax is used in code outside the struct as well: Accessing Instance Fields from Outside Code (vJASS): function Access takes nothing returns nothing local Hero heroOne = Hero.create(Player(0), 0, 0) local Hero heroTwo = Hero.create(Player(1), 100, 100) call BJDebugMsg(I2S(GetPlayerId(GetOwningPlayer(heroOne.u)))) // Prints "0" call BJDebugMsg(I2S(GetPlayerId(GetOwningPlayer(heroTwo.u)))) // Prints "1" endfunction Instance fields belong to a group of struct features called instance members. The other part of this group is comprised of features called instance methods. Instance methods are one type of method. Methods are similar to functions in normal JASS. They carry out certain actions by executing certain lines of code when called. Just like functions, they can take parameters and have a return type. Let's define a simple instance method in Hero: An Instance Method Code (vJASS): method move takes real x, real y returns nothing call IssuePointOrder(this.u, "move", x, y) endmethod The new method in Hero is called move() and simply orders the hero to move to a certain point. You can see the syntax for defining a method is nearly identical to that for defining a function; you just replace the keywords "function" and "endfunction" with "method" and "endmethod". One important difference is that methods must always be declared inside a struct. Instance methods behave similarly to instance fields in the sense that they behave differently for different instances of a struct. Because of this, when calling instance methods, you must specify a target. In other words, you need to call the method on a specific instance of a struct. Depending on which instance you call the method on (the target instance), the results may be different. For example, calling move() on instance A of Hero will only order instance A to move, while calling the method on instance B only orders instance B to move. The syntax for calling instance methods is similar to that for accessing instance fields: Calling Instance Methods Code (vJASS): function CallMethod takes nothing returns nothing local Hero hero = Hero.create(Player(0), 0, 0) call hero.move(100, 100) endfunction It is almost identical to calling regular functions except that you must specify a target for the method. Notice the this keyword used in move(): An Instance Method Code (vJASS): method move takes real x, real y returns nothing call IssuePointOrder(this.u, "move", x, y) endmethod this is a reserved keyword when used inside instance methods. It is a pointer that always references the "current" instance of the struct. In other words, it always references the instance in which the code is currently executing. Therefore, to refer to the struct instance on which the currently executing instance method was called (i.e. the target of the currently executing instance method) you use this. An alternate syntax allows you to simply leave out the this keyword and simply use the dot: Alternate Syntax Code (vJASS): method move takes real x, real y returns nothing call IssuePointOrder(.u, "move", x, y) endmethod This syntax works fine most of the time but there are certain situations (which I'm not going to get into right now...for more information see the appendix) in which leaving out this can cause compile errors. For the purposes of this tutorial, I will always explicitly use this inside instance methods. You are not, of course, restricted to only using this as a target within instance methods; you may also reference other instances: Referencing Other Instances Code (vJASS): method isAlly takes Hero other returns boolean return IsUnitAlly(other.u, GetOwningPlayer(this.u)) endmethod This concludes the section on instantiating structs and using instance members. Destroying Structs and onDestroy() If you can create new instances of structs, it makes sense that you can also destroy them. In fact, there can be only 8190 total instances of a given struct type existing in memory at any one time (See the appendix for more information). Once you hit this limit, creating more struct instances won't do anything until you destroy some instances to free up space. The syntax to destroy a struct is: Destroying structs Code (vJASS): function Die takes Hero hero returns nothing call hero.destroy() endfunction The instance method destroy() exists for every struct even if you don't manually declare it. If you wish to run specific code when an instance is destroyed, you may do so using the instance method onDestroy(): onDestroy() Code (vJASS): struct Hero // ... method onDestroy takes nothing returns nothing call RemoveUnit(this.u) endmethod endstruct onDestroy is run when destroy() is called on an instance but before the instance is actually destroyed. The method signature for onDestroy() is always identical to the one shown above. A warning about onDestroy(): Do not call destroy() on the same instance that was just slated to be destroyed (or do anything that will eventually result in destroy() being called from that instance), or else you will cause an infinite loop. Static Members We have already discussed instance members of structs. There also exist what are called static members. Let's define some in Hero: Static Members Code (vJASS): struct Hero static Hashtable ht // <== // ... static method create takes player p, real x, real y returns Hero local Hero new = Hero.allocate() set new.u = CreateUnit(p, 'H000', x, y, 270.0) call SaveInteger(Hero.ht, 1, GetHandleId(new.u), new) return new endmethod // ... static method getHeroFromUnit takes unit u returns Hero // <== return LoadSavedInteger(Hero.ht, 1, GetHandleId(u)) endmethod endstruct We discussed earlier how instance members can behave differently for different struct instances. Static members do not have such variability. They are not associated with any particular instance of the struct type to which they belong. You may think of static fields as global variables and static methods as just regular functions. Because static members are only associated with a struct type rather than with struct instances, when accessing them you must provide a struct type, in the form of the struct's name, instead of a reference to an instance. Look in the constructor in the above example to see how the static field ht is accessed: using the name of the struct type ("Hero"), then a dot, then the field identifier. The syntax for calling static methods is similar. You may access static members from outside the struct as well: Accessing Static Members from Outside Code (vJASS): function AccessStatic takes unit u returns nothing local Hero hero = Hero.getHeroFromUnit(u) endfunction Static methods cannot use the this keyword like instance methods do (Note in the appendix on this). Static methods may still reference struct instances, but they need to obtain the reference from a source other than this. Because of these limitations of static members, there are some things to keep in mind about using them: Static methods are used when access to a specific instance is either not needed or not practical. Static fields are used to store data that is not just pertinent to a single instance. Usually this means data that is shared by or is relevant to all instances of a struct type without having to be changed. Encapsulation An important part of vJASS and OOP in general is encapsulation, which, to put it somewhat inelegantly, is hiding things from those who don't need or shouldn't have access to them. By default, all members of a struct are public, meaning as long as you have access to the struct type (static members) or an instance of a struct (instance members), you can access the members. However, in certain situations, you might not want code outside of a certain scope to have access to certain members. Usually this is the case when releasing public scripts or systems and you don't want users who might not know what they are doing to be accessing fields and calling methods they shouldn't be accessing and calling. One of the ways to achieve this is to declare members as private: Private Static Members Code (vJASS): struct Hero private static Hashtable ht // <== private unit u // <== static method create takes player p, real x, real y returns Hero local Hero new = Hero.allocate() set new.u = CreateUnit(p, 'H000', x, y, 270.0) call SaveInteger(Hero.ht, 1, GetHandleId(new.u), new) return new endmethod method getUnit takes nothing returns unit return this.u endmethod // ... static method getHeroFromUnit takes unit u returns Hero return LoadSavedInteger(Hero.ht, 1, GetHandleId(u)) endmethod endstruct The static field ht has been declared private using the private keyword. Private members cannot be accessed by code outside the struct in which the members were declared. Code within the struct can still freely access private members (as seen in the constructor and static method getHeroFromUnit()). Static methods and instance members (look at the instance field u) are declared to be private in the same manner, and the effect is the same. Interfaces Now that we know a bit about structs, it's time to move on to a very important concept in OOP: polymorphism. In short, polymorphism is the ability to treat multiple types of structs (objects) as if they were all ONE type of object. The simplest way to achieve this is with interfaces. Just like structs, interfaces define a data type (and in a sense, also a type of object). The difference is that an interface is an abstract data type (ADT). ADTs have the property of being abstract, meaning that they do not define specifically the properties of their types. To see what this means, take a look at an example: An Interface Code (vJASS): interface Killable method die takes nothing returns nothing endinterface The interface Movable seems to be declaring a method: move(). But take a close look and you will see only the method signature (identifier, parameter list, and return type). The method is missing its body, where the code for the method usually goes. Killable simply declares that anything treated as a Killable can be killed via a method called die() but doesn't specify how that method is supposed to work. Another way to look at this is that Killable puts forth a general contract: any Killable object must be capable of being killed via the die() method. This is how an interface works. It declares instance members (meaning methods and fields) but doesn't actually implement them (or equivalently, puts forth contracts but doesn't specify how they should be fulfilled). This lack of specificity is what renders an interface abstract. In fact, an interface is too abstract to be instantiated like structs. If they can't be instantiated, how are interfaces useful then? Well, the answer is that structs can extend interfaces. When a struct extends an interface, two things happen. Firstly, the struct must implement any methods that the interface declares. Secondly, instances of that struct can be treated as if they were the same data type as the interface. For example: Extending Interfaces Code (vJASS): struct Hero extends Killable // ... endstruct Here, the struct Hero has extended the Killable interface. In essence, by extending Killable, Hero is saying that it wants to be treated as if it were a Killable. But right now there's a problem; interfaces require that all extending structs implement the methods declared within those interfaces, but Hero has not implemented the method declared inside Killable: die(). Remember the general contract of Killable: any Killable must be capable of being killed by the method die(). Hero must fulfill this contract if it wants to extend Killable, so it must implement die(): Fulfilling Interface Contracts Code (vJASS): struct Hero extends Killable // ... method die takes nothing returns nothing call KillUnit(this.u) endmethod // ... endstruct Hero has implemented die() and by doing so fulfilled Killable's general contract. Now instances of Hero can be treated as the same data type as Killable. So for example: Interface Type Code (vJASS): function InterfaceTypeLocal takes player p, real x, real y returns nothing local Killable m = Hero.create(p, x, y) // Saving an instance of Hero into a variable of type Killable endfunction function InterfaceTypeReturn takes player p, real x, real y returns Movable return Hero.create(p, x, y) // a function with return type Killable returning an instance of Hero endfunction You may be saying: this is all great, but why bother with interfaces? Why not just make Hero implement die() without the use of an interface? Well, lets suppose there was another struct that extended Killable: The Other Struct Code (vJASS): struct Bomb extends Killable // ... method explode takes nothing returns nothing // makes a big boom // ... endmethod method die takes nothing returns nothing call this.explode() endmethod endstruct Both Hero and Bomb extend Killable, meaning they both implement die() and both can be treated as if they were of type Killable. Now, let's assume for a second that we wanted a function with a single job: to kill things. The function doesn't care what those things are; as long as they can be killed, it kills them. Well, right now we have two types of objects that can be killed: Hero and Bomb. Without using interfaces, we would probably have to resort to using two functions to get what we wanted: The World Without Interfaces Code (vJASS): function KillHero takes Hero hero returns nothing call hero.die() endfunction function KillBomb takes Bomb bomb returns nothing call bomb.die() endfunction Well...this seems kind of silly. We have two functions essentially doing the exact same thing: calling die() on something that can be killed. The only difference between the two is that one operates on Hero's and one operates on Bomb's. Wouldn't it be nice if we could achieve the same effect with only a single function? And in fact we can. If the contract of Killable is that any Killable object can be killed via die(), then we can simply create one function that takes in a Killable instance and calls die() on it: Interfaces To The Rescue Code (vJASS): function Kill takes Killable k returns nothing call k.die() endfunction We've just cut down our code by 50% by taking advantage of interfaces. The above function can take in instances of both Hero and Bomb since by extending Killable, both struct types can be treated as if they were of type Killable. Therefore the following is possible: Polymorphism Code (vJASS): function Macabre takes Hero hero, Bomb bomb returns nothing call Kill(hero) call Kill(bomb) endfunction In the above example we've treated Hero and Bomb, two different struct types, as if they were the same type, namely Killable. This is polymorphism, and you can probably already see the potential advantages of exploiting it. You may be wondering: wait, if you treat both Hero and Bomb as Killable and simply call die() using a variable of type Killable, which version of die() gets called each time: Hero's or Bomb's? The answer is that the version belonging to the actual struct type of the instance referenced by the Killable variable is always called. So if the variable references a Hero, then Hero's die() will be called, and if the variable references a Bomb, then Bomb's die() will be called. This will be true in all cases: When calling a method declared by an interface using a variable of the interface type as a reference, the version of the method that is called is always the version belonging to the actual struct type of the instance referenced by the variable. If you are still a little confused, a good analogy is ordering units to attack. No matter what type of unit you select, when you tell them to attack the same order is given: "attack". If you give that order to a footman it will swing a sword, but give it to a rifleman and it will shoot a rifle, even though the same order is being given. But no matter what, the correct action is always taken; you never see a footman trying to shoot a rifle or a rifleman trying to swing a sword. If you use a variable of an interface type to reference some struct instance, you may only access members declared by the interface. Any other members that the struct may have cannot be accessed: Interface Limitations Code (vJASS): function CantHappen takes player p, real x, real y returns nothing local Killable k = Hero.create(p, x, y) call k.getUnit() // this will result in a compile-time error endfunction Even though the struct instance is in actuality of type Hero, the variable k has been declared as type Killable, so the compiler can only be sure that whatever k references has implemented die() and nothing more. To call getUnit(), you would have to make an explicit cast: Casting Code (vJASS): function CanHappen takes player p, real x, real y returns nothing local Killable k = Hero.create(p, x, y) call Hero(k).getUnit() // explicit cast endfunction Or: Code (vJASS): function CanAlsoHappen takes player p, real x, real y returns nothing local Killable k = Hero.create(p, x, y) local Hero hero = k // explicit cast through an implicit cast... call hero.getUnit() endfunction This essentially tells the compiler: the instance is actually a Hero, so calling getUnit() is legal! However, you should NEVER make casts unless you are absolutely sure that what you are casting is in fact compatible with the data type to which you are casting. For example: Unsafe casting Code (vJASS): function CanAlsoHappenButShouldnt takes player p, real x, real y returns nothing local Killable k = Hero.create(p, x, y) local Bomb bomb = k call bomb.explode() endfunction This code is obviously wrong and will create all kinds of bugs but the compiler will not flag this as an error. It simply trusts that you know what you are doing when making explicit casts. I think it's important to note that (sadly) interfaces cannot extend other interfaces. Struct Inheritance I now introduce to you a struct called Sword: Sword Code (vJASS): struct Sword private real damage private Hero hero static method create takes real damage returns Sword local Sword new = Sword.allocate() set new.damage = damage set new.hero = 0 return new endmethod method getDamage takes nothing returns real return this.damage endmethod method getWielder takes nothing returns Hero return this.hero endmethod method wield takes Hero hero returns nothing set this.hero = hero endmethod method attack takes unit u returns nothing call UnitDamageTarget(this.hero.getUnit(), u, this.damage, true, false, ATTACK_TYPE_NORMAL, DAMAGE_TYPE_NORMAL, WEAPON_TYPE_WHOKNOWS) endmethod endstruct A sword can be wielded by a hero and can attack units, damaging them. Now let's say we want to create a new type of sword. This sword would be able to do everything normal swords do, but also have the ability to heal its wielder. We could define this new sword like this: Holy Sword Code (vJASS): struct HolySword private real damage private real heal private Hero hero static method create takes real damage, real heal returns HolySword local HolySword new = HolySword.allocate() set new.damage = damage set new.heal = heal set new.hero = 0 return new endmethod method getDamage takes nothing returns real return this.damage endmethod method getWielder takes nothing returns Hero return this.hero endmethod method getHeal takes nothing returns real return this.heal endmethod method wield takes Hero hero returns nothing set this.hero = hero endmethod method attack takes unit u returns nothing call UnitDamageTarget(this.hero.getUnit(), u, this.damage, true, false, ATTACK_TYPE_NORMAL, DAMAGE_TYPE_NORMAL, WEAPON_TYPE_WHOKNOWS) endmethod method heal takes nothing returns nothing call SetWidgetLife(this.hero.getUnit(), GetWidgetLife(this.hero.getUnit()) + this.heal) endmethod endstruct Wait a minute. HolySword is almost identical to Sword. The only differences are the private field heal and the method heal(), as well as some minor changes in the constructor. We've just duplicated over a dozen lines of code! And as it turns out, we've done it needlessly, because we could have taken advantage of struct inheritance. What is struct inheritance? To put it simply: it's when a struct extends another struct. Let's put it to use with HolySword and see what we get: Struct Extends Struct Code (vJASS): struct HolySword extends Sword private real heal static method create takes real damage, real heal returns HolySword local HolySword new = HolySword.allocate(damage) set new.heal = heal return new endmethod method getHeal takes nothing returns real return this.heal endmethod method heal takes nothing returns nothing local Hero wielder = this.getWielder() call SetWidgetLife(wielder.getUnit(), GetWidgetLife(wielder.getUnit()) + this.heal) endmethod endstruct HolySword is now a child of Sword, and Sword is the parent of HolySword. Notice how the code for HolySword is now 50% shorter! Child structs inherit all the instance members of their parent structs, meaning they automatically implement all those fields and methods, even if the code isn't written out for them in the child. So in our HolySword example, HolySword has the fields damage and hero as well as the methods getDamage(), getWielder(), wield(), and attack(). So you can do things like: Inheritance Code (vJASS): function Inheritance takes Hero hero, unit u returns nothing local HolySword s = HolySword.create(100, 100) call s.wield(hero) call s.attack(u) endfunction Note that HolySword cannot access the private field wielder in Sword and must use the public getter method getWielder(). This is a general rule. Child structs cannot access the private members of their parents. By convention, child structs are less abstract than their parents. For example, Sword represents a sword that can be wielded and can damage units. Beyond that, Sword is very abstract about its properties. HolySword inherits all of these properties, and on top of that it says that a holy sword can heal its wielder. Just like how structs that extend interfaces can be treated as if they were of the interface type, structs that extend other structs can be treated as if they were of the type of their parents. Therefore, child struct instances can be referenced by variables of the parent struct type. However, like with interfaces, if using a variable of the parent struct type to reference some struct instance, you may only access members defined for the parent struct. An important thing to remember is that multiple inheritance is not allowed. In other words, a struct may extend one and only one struct. However, arbitrarily many structs may extend the same parent. (This should be obvious but I should probably say it anyway. You can't have two or more structs circularly extending one another. In other words, you can't have struct A extending struct B extending struct C extending struct A.) Struct inheritance creates what is called a hierarchy or a hierarchal relationship among structs. The struct hierarchy is ordered such that parents are always situated above their children. In general, the higher up the hierarchy you go, the more abstract the structs are. When a struct extends another, constructor and onDestroy() behavior change. The new behavior is critical to the correct functioning of struct inheritance. If the child struct does not explicitly declare a constructor, then for all intents and purposes it inherits its parent's constructor. Practically what this means is that the constructor of the child will require the same parameters as its parent. (Note that this is a very special case of inheritance. Normally static members, including static methods like create() cannot be inherited.) In the case where the child does explicitly declare a constructor, the call to the static allocate() method will call the constructor of the parent struct. The allocate() method now also has to take the same parameters as the constructor of the parent struct: Constructor Overriding Code (vJASS): static method create takes real damage, real heal returns HolySword local HolySword new = HolySword.allocate(damage) // <== set new.heal = heal return new endmethod Notice that the parameter list for HolySword (two reals) doesn't match the list for Sword (one real). This is completely legal. The constructor of a child struct may have a completely different parameter list than that of its parent. Because allocate() calls the constructor of a child struct's parent, when the child struct is instantiated, the constructor(s) of its parent(s) is (are) also called. The order in which they are called is always from the top of the hierarchy downward; parents first then childs. What about onDestroy()? It turns out that when a struct is destroyed, its own onDestroy() method is called, then the onDestroy() method of its parent is called, and then that of the parent's parent is called, etc. Note that if a struct is destroyed, the onDestroy() methods of its children, grandchildren, etc. will not be called. Merging Inheritance with Interfaces You can make structs extend structs that extend interfaces. So for example let's create a new type of hero: VainHero Code (vJASS): struct VainHero extends Hero // ... method strikePose takes nothing returns nothing // the hero strikes a bombastic pose // ... endmethod // ... endstruct In this case, VainHero is extending Hero, which in turn extends an interface: Killable. This means that VainHero is indirectly extending Killable. Because of this, VainHero can be considered as being both of type of Hero and Killable. VainHero does not necessarily need to explicitly define the method die() even though Killable requires them. This is because Hero has already defined that method and VainHero automatically inherits it from Hero. However, you can explicitly define die() in VainHero by overriding it (see the section on method overriding). Note that a single struct cannot extend both another struct and an interface at the same time. For obvious reasons, interfaces cannot extend structs. Overriding Methods In vJASS, there are two ways to do method overriding. The first is to have a child struct override a method in a parent struct declared by an interface that the parent struct extends. The other is to have a child struct override a stub method in a parent struct. In both cases, the end result of method overriding is the same: the overriding method essentially replaces the method it is overriding. To have a method override a method in a parent struct, the new method must have the same signature (identifier, parameter list, and return type) as the method in the parent struct. Once again, learning by example is best: Method overriding 1 Code (vJASS): struct VainHero extends Hero // ... method die takes nothing returns nothing // dies in style. call this.strikePose() call KillUnit(this.getUnit()) endmethod // ... endstruct VainHero still satisfies the requirement to extend Killable: it has a die() method. Notice that the method signature is identical to Hero's die() and the declaration of die() in Killable. However, VainHero's die() does something different from Hero's method: it makes a call to strikePose(). This new die() method essentially replaces Hero's die(). Calling die() on an instance of VainHero would result in the hero striking a pose before succumbing to death. Now let's say we want VainHero to strike a pose whenever he is ordered to move somewhere; we would need to change how move is implemented for VainHero. We can do this using the second way of overriding methods. First we change move() in Hero to a stub method: Stub methods Code (vJASS): struct Hero // ... stub method move takes real x, real y returns nothing // <== call IssuePointOrder(this.getUnit(), "move", x, y) endmethod // ... Adding the stub keyword before the method signature essentially declares the method to be capable of overridden in any children that the current struct may have. Now that move() can be overridden, we declare a new move() method in VainHero: Method overriding 2 Code (vJASS): struct VainHero extends Hero // ... method move takes real x, real y returns nothing call this.strikePose() call IssuePointOrder(this.getUnit(), "move", x, y) endmethod // ... endstruct VainHero has now overridden move(). Like with the previous example using die(), whenever move() is called on an instance of VainHero, VainHero's move() would be called instead of Hero's move(), and the hero would strike a pose before moving. Overriding methods naturally leads us to the following question. Suppose we were to code the following: ??? Code (vJASS): function WhatsGoingOn takes nothing returns nothing local Hero hero = Hero.create(Player(0), 0, 0) local VainHero vainHero = VainHero.create(Player(0), 100, 100) local Hero anotherHero = VainHero.create(Player(0), -100, -100) call hero.move(1000, 1000) // Line 1 call vainHero.move(1000, 1000) // Line 2 call anotherHero.move(1000, 1000) // Line 3 endfunction What would happen in lines 1, 2, and 3? Which move() is being called in each line: Hero's or VainHero's? The answer is: Line 1: Hero's Line 2: VainHero's Line 3: VainHero's The take-home point here is that when a method is called on some instance A, the only thing that matters when determining which version of the method is called is the actual struct type of A. The data type of the variable used to reference A does not matter. A final note about method overriding: Static methods cannot be overridden. If you attempt to create a static method in a struct with the same method signature as a static method in the struct's parent, you will get a compile error. super Sometimes, you might want an overriding method to call the parent's version of the method. To do this, you use the super keyword. For example, if you look at VainHero's move, it is the same thing as Hero's version except that it just adds a call to strikePose(). We can take advantage of this fact and rewrite VainHero's move(): super Code (vJASS): struct VainHero extends Hero // ... method move takes real x, real y returns nothing call super.move(x, y) call this.strikePose() endmethod // ... endstruct Notice the use of the keyword super. When used within an instance method of struct that extends another, super allows us to reference the current struct instance (like this) except that it forces the instance to be treated as if its actual struct type were its type's parent type. So in the above example, even though VainHero has overridden move(), calling super.move() actually causes Hero's version of move() to be called. If you were wondering, you can't do something like: super.super Code (vJASS): method foolish takes nothing returns nothing call super.super.foolish() endmethod In fact, if you ever find yourself needing to do this, you need to refactor your code because this is a sign that your struct hierarchy is flawed. typeid and getType() There will be times where you need to check the actual struct type of some struct instance. For example: Unchecked casting Code (vJASS): function Risky takes Hero hero returns nothing local VainHero vainHero = hero call vainHero.strikePose() endfunction In the above code, we don't know if the parameter hero references an instance of VainHero or Hero. If it references an instance of Hero, casting it to VainHero and calling strikePose() on it would be very bad. So how do we fix this? Like this: Checked casting Code (vJASS): function Safe takes Hero hero returns nothing local VainHero vainHero if (hero.getType() == VainHero.typeid) then set vainHero = hero call vainHero.strikePose() endif endfunction The getType() method is an instance method defined for all struct types that returns an integer unique to the struct type of the instance on which getType() is called. The typeid field is an implicitly defined static field that returns the same unique integer of the struct type. So, if getType() of instance A returns the same integer as typeid of struct type T, you can be sure that A's actual struct type is in fact T. The primary drawback of getType() and typeid is that we can only use it to compare actual struct types. We cannot use it to check to see if an instance is of a struct type that extends another struct type. To see how this can be a problem, let's take a look at this example: getType() and typeid limitations Code (vJASS): function Unfortunate takes Killable k returns nothing local Hero hero if (k.getType() == Hero.typeid) then set hero = k call hero.move(0, 0) endif endfunction Now assume that k references an instance of VainHero. In this case k.getType() returns a different integer from Hero.typeid because those integers are unique to each struct type and VainHero and Hero are two distinct struct types. It's perfectly valid to call move() on any instances of Hero and structs that extend Hero, including VainHero, but in this case the code will not recognize instances of VainHero as valid instances on which to call move(). Function Objects vJASS has the option of letting you treat even functions as objects. The idea isn't really that shocking, considering normal JASS already had a data type for functions (code), so it was already taking a tiny step toward treating functions as their own type of object. An example of a function object: Function Object Code (vJASS): function DisplayHeroDeath takes Hero hero returns nothing call DisplayTextToPlayer(GetOwningPlayer(hero.getUnit()), 0, 0, "Your hero has died.") endfunction Notice that the syntax is exactly the same as for normal functions. In fact, every function that you define is automatically considered to be a function object. Native functions, however, cannot be treated as function objects. There are two methods you can call on function objects: evaluate() and execute(). Both of these methods have the same parameter list as the function and simply run the code in the function body. The advantages of using these rather than a simple call is that they allow you to run functions before you define them in the map script: Precedence...what's that? Code (vJASS): function Awesome takes Hero hero returns nothing call DisplayHeroDeath.evaluate(hero) endfunction function DisplayHeroDeath takes Hero hero returns nothing call DisplayTextToPlayer(GetOwningPlayer(hero.getUnit()), 0, 0, "Your hero has died.") endfunction There are limitations to these two methods and differences between them. Both are slower than a normal function call. Using evaluate() is not compatible with GetTriggeringTrigger(), but is compatible with all other event responses, and is also not compatible with waits. Using execute() runs the function in a new thread - unlike evaluate() - so obviously it is not compatible with event responses. A perk of execute() is that it is faster than using the native ExecuteFunc(), not to mention it won't crash the map if you typed in the function name incorrectly (you get a compile-time error instead). Function Interfaces Like structs, function objects have interfaces for them! Instead of requiring fields and methods, function interfaces require a specific parameter list and a specific return type. Unlike struct interfaces, where a struct extending an interface can implement extra fields and methods besides those required by the interface, functions extending an interface must match the parameter list and return type specified by the interface exactly. The conventions for struct interfaces hold for function interfaces. Function interfaces are abstract types while the functions that extend them are less abstract, providing greater specificity. An example of a function interface: Function Interface Code (vJASS): function interface OnHeroDeath takes Hero hero returns nothing For a function to extend an interface, all that is required is that its parameter list and return type match the interface; if this is satisfied, then the function will automatically extend the interface. There is no explicit "function extends interface" syntax involved. Like struct interfaces, a function interface defines a data type. Because of this, functions can now be stored into variables or passed as parameters or even returned by functions or methods: Function interface demo Code (vJASS): struct Hero extends Killable // ... private OnHeroDeath onHD // ... static method create takes player p, real x, real y, OnHeroDeath onHD returns Hero local Hero new = Hero.allocate() set this.u = CreateUnit(p, 'H000', x, y, 270.0) set this.onHD = onHD return new endmethod // ... method die takes nothing returns nothing call this.onHD.evaluate(this) call KillUnit(this.u) endmethod endstruct Notice how I can take in a function of type OnHeroDeath in the constructor and then save that function to an instance field of type OnHeroDeath. All that is required is that whatever function is passed in extends OnHeroDeath. Notice how I can also call evaluate() on the field onHD. I could also call execute() on it if I wanted to. Now that we have a function interface set up, we can instantiate a Hero that when killed, displays to its owning player that one of his/her heroes has died: Function Interface Syntax Code (vJASS): function InformativeHero takes nothing returns nothing call Hero.create(Player(0), 0, 0, OnHeroDeath.DisplayHeroDeath) endfunction Notice the syntax for using a function as a variable: [function interface name] + . + [function name]. You can also drop the function interface name: Alternate Function Interface Syntax Code (vJASS): function InformativeHero takes nothing returns nothing call Hero.create(Player(0), 0, 0, DisplayHeroDeath) endfunction The alternate syntax requires less typing but the compiler will not be able to check if the function does in fact extend what it's supposed to extend. Glossary of Terms abstract The property of not being specific (or being less specific) as to how something is supposed to be done. abstract type A type that is abstract enough that it is either unwise or not possible to create working objects of that type. Abstract types are usually extended by other types that are less abstract. abstraction The act of hiding irrelevant and/or unimportant processes or data, leaving behind only what is immediately necessary. Not to be confused with encapsulation. child In the case where a struct extends another struct, this is the struct that is doing the extending. Lower in the struct hierarchy and less abstract (more specific). constructor The static method - named create() - that is called on struct instantiation. encapsulation The practice of hiding, or preventing access to, certain data within a scope (for example a struct) from code outside of that scope. Not to be confused with abstraction. extends Keyword used when an object or type type wishes to obtain the properties of a more abstract type. By contract the object or type that is doing the extending is less abstract and provides more specificity than the object or type that is being extended. hierarchy The organization of relationships among struct types with regard to their parents and children. Parents are always higher in the hierarchy than their children. In general, structs higher in the hierarchy are more abstract than those lower in the hierarchy. inheritance The process of a child struct absorbing or copying a parent struct's fields and methods into itself. Can also be used to refer to the act of a struct extending another struct. instance One specific copy of a struct type that exists in memory. instance member A member that is defined on an instance-by-instance basis. Instance members may behave differently for different instances of the same struct type. Access to instance members requires a reference to a struct instance. instantiation The act of creating a new instance of a struct. interface An abstract type that defines (abstractly) the properties of a group of objects. Struct interfaces require implementation of fields and/or methods while function interfaces require a specific parameter list and return type. member A field or a method that is declared inside a struct. method A type of struct member that represents an action that a struct may undertake. Similar to a function. method overriding The act of replacing a method in a parent struct with a newly defined method in the child struct. parent In the case where a struct extends another struct, this is the struct that is being extended. Higher in the struct hierarchy and more abstract (less specific). polymorphism The ability to treat multiple types of objects as a single, common object type. private A property of data whereby the data is inaccessible from outside the scope in which it is declared. Also the keyword to declare data to be private. public A property of data whereby the data is accessible from all scopes. Also the keyword to declare data to be public. static member A member that is defined identically for all instances of a struct type. Access to static members only requires reference to a struct type. struct A type of object. Contains fields and methods that serve to describe the properties of the object. struct type See struct. stub method A method that is declared to be capable of being overridden. super A keyword implicitly defined within instance methods of structs that extend a parent. This keyword references the struct instance on which the method was called (the "current" instance) but forces the instance to be treated as if its actual struct type were its type's parent type. this A keyword implicitly defined within instance methods that always references the struct instance on which the method was called (the "current" instance). Appendix The appendix is a section reserved for discussing issues that are not absolutely critical to understanding OOP in vJASS but vJASS beginners should eventually be aware of anyway. I chose to separate these topics from the main tutorial mainly to avoid confusing readers with extra information that is not immediately pertinent. Use of Implicit this I discussed in the section dealing with instance members that inside instance methods, the keyword this may be left out when referencing the "current" struct instance. Most of the time, this syntax is fine. However, when using vJASS's private keyword feature to encapsulate instance members within a library or scope, dropping the this when referencing those encapsulated members will generate a compile error (the compiler will tell you that the member doesn't exist). To see an example: Issues with Implicit this Code (vJASS): library A private keyword i struct S integer i method foo takes nothing returns nothing set .i = 100 // Generates compile error endmethod endstruct endlibrary To fix this, simply explicitly use this: Fixing Issues with Implicit this Code (vJASS): library A private keyword i struct S integer i method foo takes nothing returns nothing set this.i = 100 endmethod endstruct endlibrary Use of Implicit Struct Type Names When referencing static members within a struct, you may drop the struct type name before the dot (similar to dropping this when referencing instance members): Implicit Struct Type Names Code (vJASS): struct S static integer i = 5 static method increment takes nothing returns nothing set .i = .i + 1 // Same as: set S.i = S.i + 1 endmethod endstruct This is acceptable syntax most of the time. However, like with implicit this, it causes compile errors when using private keywords: One Issue with Implicit Struct Type Names Code (vJASS): library A private keyword i struct S static integer i = 0 static method increment takes nothing returns nothing set .i = .i + 1 // Generates compile error endmethod endstruct endlibrary To fix this, simply use the struct type name: Fixing One Issue with Implicit Struct Type Names Code (vJASS): library A private keyword i struct S static integer i = 0 static method increment takes nothing returns nothing set S.i = S.i + 1 endmethod endstruct endlibrary There is another time when using implicit struct type names can cause compile errors. This is when using static methods as callback functions in certain natives such as TimerStart(), ForGroup(), and the GroupEnum functions: Callback Issues Code (vJASS): struct S static integer i = 0 static method increment takes nothing returns nothing set .i = .i + 1 endmethod static method start takes nothing returns nothing call TimerStart(CreateTimer(), 1.00, true, .increment) // Generates compile error endmethod endstruct In these cases you must use the full struct type name: Fixing Callback Issues Code (vJASS): struct S static integer i = 0 static method increment takes nothing returns nothing set .i = .i + 1 endmethod static method start takes nothing returns nothing call TimerStart(CreateTimer(), 1.00, true, S.increment) endmethod endstruct Using this as a Local Variable Identifier Because the this keyword is not defined in static methods and regular functions, you may use this as a local variable identifier in them: this as Local Variable Code (vJASS): struct S static method foo takes nothing returns nothing local S this = S.create() endmethod endstruct function Bar takes nothing returns nothing local S this = S.create() endfunction Struct Storage Size The default storage size (usually equivalent to instance limit) of any struct type is 8190. This means that only 8190 instances of any given struct type can exist in memory at any one time. Note that if a struct extends anything (doesn't matter if it is another struct or an interface) or is extended by another struct, instances of that struct type and instances of any struct types "related" to it (i.e. is a child or shares a common parent) all share a common storage size (of 8190). So if struct A, B, and C all extend interface I, there can only be 8190 total instances of A, B, and C. If a new struct D were to extend B, then there could only be 8190 total instances of A, B, C, and D. There are ways to increase the storage size of a struct. You can read about it in the jasshelper manual. Credits Thanks to Dreadnought[dA], Eleandor, and PurplePoot for their helpful suggestions. And of course a big thank you to Vexorian for creating vJASS and jasshelper.