Typecasting

Level 33
Joined
Apr 24, 2012
Messages
5,121
TypeCasting
By Almia
[TD][/TD]




What is Typecasting?

[TD][/TD]
[TD]Typecasting is a way of converting a given type to wanted type in Warcraft 3. Warcraft 3's common.j has certain functions that can already typecast:
  • GetHandleId -> Converts a handle to an integer
  • StringHash -> Converts a string to an integer
  • S2I -> Unlike StringHash, S2I converts a string to an integer depending on its characters, like 1,2,3 etc.
  • I2S -> Reversed S2I
  • R2I -> Converts a real to an integer
  • I2R -> Reversed R2I
  • R2S -> Similar to I2S, though real
  • S2R -> Reversed R2S
  • R2SW -> Converts real to string with exact width and precision
[/TD][TD][/TD]




Other Typecasting

[TD][/TD][TD]

There were some times where coders wanted to typecast handles; they where sad those days. However, a few coders found ways to typecast them through abusing a bug with the game engine.


Typecasting Methods



( Click the tabs above to view the methods )



[TD]

Warcraft 3 1.23

Patch 1.24

Modern





In the Warcraft 3 1.23 versions below, a return bug was discovered.
The return bug is an inconsistency in the way the game engine handled function returns. When they check code for syntax errors, they only check the type of the last return value. However, when the code actually ran, the game engine would end the function at the first return, and automatically convert the type. This bug allowed any type to be converted into another, whether it was valid or not. This bug allows to typecast types very easily.



Here are some of the most known uses of this bug:
  • H2I ( Handle to Integer )
    JASS:
    function H2I takes handle h returns integer
        return h
        return 0
    endfunction
    - This function can typecast a handle and return its ID. The ID of a handle can then be used for many things.
    The first and most notable use of this function was in Local Handle Vars by KaTTaNa, but since that system relies on gamecache, it is slow and is no longer used in most maps.
    As of patch 1.24, Blizzard has provided a native H2I, GetHandleId.
  • I2H ( Integer to Handle )
    JASS:
    function I2H takes integer i returns handle
        return i
        return null
    endfunction
    - I2H is the opposite of H2I - it typecasts a handle ID back into a handle. Because this does not increase the reference count for the given handle, it is possible that handles returned by this function become recycled (invalid). Therefore, the I2H function shouldn't be used.
  • StringToInt ( String to Integer )
    JASS:
    function String2Int takes string s returns integer
        return s
        return 0
    endfunction
    - String2Int takes a string, and returns the index for it in the Warcraft III engine's String Table.
  • IntToString ( Integer to String )
    JASS:
    function Int2String takes integer i returns string
        return i
        return null // or return ""
    endfunction
    - Int2String is the inverse of String2Int, taking the index to a string in the String Table, and returning the string held in that slot.
  • C2I ( Code to Integer )
    JASS:
    function C2I takes code c returns integer
        return c
        return 0
    endfunction
    - The C2I function is used to typecast a code into the position in the map code. This function in combination with I2C was used to create code arrays (out of integers)
  • I2C ( Code to Integer )
    JASS:
    function I2C takes integer i returns code
        return i
        return null
    endfunction
    - The I2C function is used to typecast any integer into a code variable. However, an exploit was soon found, which allowed arbitrary byte code to be executed. This arguably caused the need for Patch 1.24.



As of Patch 1.24, the traditional return bug no longer works. To cover up the lost functionality, the functions GetHandleId (compare to H2I) and StringHash (compare to String2Int) have been introduced.
When releasing the patch Blizzard also noted a native with the name H2I will be added in the future:
We ask map makers to not create a GetHandleId alias function with the name H2I, as we will add a native H2I function to JASS in the future.







An alternative return bug, which can be used to typecast, that works both before and after Patch 1.24 has been invented by Jesus4Lyf and Azlier.
The most commonly known return bug is the ability to typecast one Jass type into another using multiple return statements.

The Return Nothing bug lets you retrieve the last returned value. It involves calling a function which returns the desired data, and making a return impossible in the calling function. It is one function call less efficient than the traditional return bug functions.

The ability to return nothing was first noticed by Deaod, the behavior of returning nothing was defined by Azlier, and the method to return nothing was perfected by Jesus4Lyf.

The Return Nothing bug can be used to typecast, first done by Jesus4Lyf, much like the commonly known return bug even after Patch 1.24.



Here are some example codes:
  • Here is an example of H2I, written to to use the Return Nothing bug:
    JASS:
    function ReturnHandle takes handle h returns handle
        return h
        //The Return Nothing bug can extract this function's returned value, even as another type.
    endfunction
    
    function H2I takes handle h returns integer
        call ReturnHandle(h) //Set the last returned value to our given handle.
        if false then //This can never occur.
            return 0
        endif
        //Since our handle 'h' was the last returned value, that is what this function will return, but in integer form. 
        //We have successfully typecasted 'h' into an integer.
    endfunction
  • Patch 1.24 C2I and I2C by Artificial
    JASS:
    function Int takes integer i returns integer
        return i
    endfunction
    
    function Code takes code c returns code
        return c
    endfunction
    
    function C2I takes code c returns integer
        call Code(c)
        if false then
            return 0
        endif
    endfunction
    
    function I2C takes integer i returns code
        call Int(i)
        if false then
            return null
        endif
    endfunction
    - The return values from C2I and I2C are not "real" integers or codes. They must be transformed into "real integers" and codes via cleaner functions that merely return them. The simplest way to clean them is to pass them through Code and Int after typecasting.
    JASS:
    local integer off = Int(C2I(function DoNothing))
    local code c = Code(C2I(off))



The bug was fixed in Patch 1.24c. Yet another return bug still exists.







A different approach was discovered by weaaddar. It uses the ConvertFogState native and hashtable functions to do casts from integer to handle.
The hashtable return bug is a new kind of return bug made possible by the new Hashtable API. The bug uses a combination of the behaviour of the ConvertFogState native and the hashtable implementation. The ConvertFogState native is very similar to the old I2H function, it takes an integer and returns the same integer but typed as a fogstate. It's possible to save this fogstate to a hashtable using SaveFogStateHandle. From there you can use any of the Load functions from the Hashtable API to cast the fogstate to the desired handle type.



Example:
JASS:
function SaveHandle takes hashtable ht, integer pkey, integer ckey, handle h returns nothing
    call SaveFogStateHandle(ht, pkey, ckey, ConvertFogState(GetHandleId(h)))
endfunction

function LoadAttackTypeHandle takes hashtable ht, integer pkey, integer ckey returns attacktype
    return ConvertAttackType(GetHandleId(LoadFogStateHandle(ht, pkey, ckey)))
endfunction

function LoadDamageTypeHandle takes hashtable ht, integer pkey, integer ckey returns damagetype
    return ConvertDamageType(GetHandleId(LoadFogStateHandle(ht, pkey, ckey)))
endfunction



Here are some codes that did this way:
  • Handle Library by Bribe
    -
    JASS:
    library Handle
    /**************************************************************************************************************
     *  Handle API
     *  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
     *  You can now save <every type> into hashtables and load almost** everything, thanks to these functions.
     *  
     *  Since many JASS types extend a handle instead of an agent, this library enables some very useful commands.
     *  Thanks to KingKing for the "ConvertFogState" trick used in many of these functions and for inspiration.
     *  Thanks to Vexorian for the awesome JassHelper; any/all of these functions will inline when you use them.
     *
     *
     *  Example Useage
     *  ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯
     *  call SaveHandle(hash, 0, 0, CreateTextTag())
     *  call SaveHandle(hash, 0, 1, TriggerAddAction(t, function thistype.onLoop))
     *
     *  call SetPlayerState(u, LoadPlayerStateHandle(hash, 0, 2), GetPlayerState(u, LoadPlayerStateHandle(hash, 0, 3)))
     *  call SetUnitState(p, LoadUnitStateHandle(hash, 0, 4), 9001)
     *
     *
     *  function SaveHandle takes hashtable table, integer parentKey, integer childKey, handle h returns boolean
     * 
     *  ->  This is basically the same thing as SaveAgentHandle, only it saves *any handle* -- it does not have to
     *      be an agent-type.  This is extremely useful for many reasons like generic saves and for saving types
     *      which could never be saved before (attacktype, damagetype, pathingtype, etc.)
     *  
     *  function SaveHandleId takes hashtable table, integer parentKey, integer childKey, handle h returns nothing
     * 
     *  ->  This is pretty much a shortcut from typing GetHandleId() each time you just want to save a handle's
     *      integer reference.
     *  
     *  function Load$NAME$Handle takes hashtable table, integer parentKey, integer childKey returns $TYPE$
     *  
     *  ->  Loads the handle of almost everything that wasn't in the hashtable API natives.
     *   
     *  function Load$NAME$HandleEx takes hashtable table, integer parentKey, integer childKey returns $TYPE$
     *   
     *  ->  If you saved the handle as an integer, this will load/typecast the desired handle from that integer.
     *      I recommend using this method instead of simple Load$NAME$Handle because it's faster to do it this way.
     *      Just keep in mind that you can't use this function for types that were already in the hashtable native
     *      API functions - they must be loaded normally or from KingKing's typecasting library.
     */
        
        function SaveHandle takes hashtable table, integer parentKey, integer childKey, handle h returns boolean
            return SaveFogStateHandle(table, parentKey, childKey, ConvertFogState(GetHandleId(h)))
        endfunction
            
        function SaveHandleId takes hashtable table, integer parentKey, integer childKey, handle h returns nothing
            call SaveInteger(table, parentKey, childKey, GetHandleId(h))
        endfunction
        
        
        //! textmacro ConvertHandleType takes NAME, TYPE
        function Load$NAME$Handle takes hashtable table, integer parentKey, integer childKey returns $TYPE$
            return Convert$NAME$(GetHandleId(LoadFogStateHandle(table, parentKey, childKey)))
        endfunction
        
        function Load$NAME$HandleEx takes hashtable table, integer parentKey, integer childKey returns $TYPE$
            return Convert$NAME$(LoadInteger(table, parentKey, childKey))
        endfunction
        //! endtextmacro
        
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("Race", "race")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("AllianceType", "alliancetype")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("RacePref", "racepreference")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("IGameState", "igamestate")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("FGameState", "fgamestate")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("PlayerState", "playerstate")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("PlayerScore", "playerscore")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("PlayerGameResult", "playergameresult")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("UnitState", "unitstate")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("AIDifficulty", "aidifficulty")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("GameEvent", "gameevent")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("PlayerEvent", "playerevent")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("PlayerUnitEvent", "playerunitevent")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("WidgetEvent", "widgetevent")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("DialogEvent", "dialogevent")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("UnitEvent", "unitevent")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("LimitOp", "limitop")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("UnitType", "unittype")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("GameSpeed", "gamespeed")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("Placement", "placement")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("StartLocPrio", "startlocprio")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("GameDifficulty", "gamedifficulty")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("GameType", "gametype")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("MapFlag", "mapflag")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("MapVisibility", "mapvisibility")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("MapSetting", "mapsetting")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("MapDensity", "mapdensity")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("MapControl", "mapcontrol")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("PlayerColor", "playercolor")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("PlayerSlotState", "playerslotstate")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("VolumeGroup", "volumegroup")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("CameraField", "camerafield")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("BlendMode", "blendmode")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("RarityControl", "raritycontrol")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("TexMapFlags", "texmapflags")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("EffectType", "effecttype")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("Version", "version")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("ItemType", "itemtype")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("AttackType", "attacktype")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("DamageType", "damagetype")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("WeaponType", "weapontype")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("SoundType", "soundtype")
        //! runtextmacro ConvertHandleType("PathingType", "pathingtype")
    /*
    *   Handles that were already in the hashtable API but cannot be saved with <SaveAgentHandle>:
    *
    *   triggeraction   ->  LoadTriggerActionHandle
    *   texttag         ->  LoadTextTagHandle
    *   unitpool        ->  LoadUnitPoolHandle
    *   itempool        ->  LoadItemPoolHandle
    *
    * **Things which still cannot be typecasted:
    *
    *   terraindeformation
    *   weathereffect
    *   camerasetup
    */
    //*************************************************************************************************************
    endlibrary

    - In this snippet,all kinds of handles are saved through two different ways. The difference between loading is that Bribe coded different loading functions for types.The types are loaded by ConvertTypes (see common.j)
    - The code mentions that there are types that still cannot be saved/loaded by typecasting, but those are minor problems.
  • Typecasting Library by kingkingyyk3
    -
    JASS:
    //////////////////////////////////////////
    //       Typecasting 2.0.1
    //       by kingking
    //  
    //  This library provides some type
    //  converting functions.
    //
    //  ====================================
    //   Functions provided :
    //  ====================================
    //  Agent2Widget(agent) -> widget
    //  Agent2Group(agent) -> group
    //  Agent2Trigger(agent) -> trigger
    //  Agent2Timer(agent) -> timer
    //  Agent2Location(agent) -> location
    //  Agent2Effect(agent) -> effect
    //  Agent2Unit(agent) -> unit
    //  Agent2Item(agent) -> item
    //  Widget2Unit(widget) -> unit
    //  Widget2Destructable(widget) -> destructable
    //  Widget2Item(widget) -> item
    //
    //  Due to the usage of CovertFogState in hashtable, I2X
    //  is available again.
    //  
    //  Int2Widget(integer) -> widget
    //  Int2Destructable(integer) -> destructable
    //  Int2Item(integer) -> item
    //  Int2Unit(integer) -> unit
    //  Int2Ability(integer) -> ability
    //  Int2Timer(integer) -> timer
    //  Int2Trigger(integer) -> trigger
    //  Int2TriggerCondition(integer) -> triggercondition
    //  Int2TriggerAction(integer) -> triggeraction
    //  Int2Force(integer) -> force
    //  Int2Group(integer) -> group
    //  Int2Location(integer) -> location
    //  Int2Rect(integer) -> rect
    //  Int2Sound(integer) -> sound
    //  Int2Effect(integer) -> effect
    //  Int2UnitPool(integer) -> unitpool
    //  Int2ItemPool(integer) -> itempool
    //  Int2Quest(integer) -> quest
    //  Int2QuestItem(integer) -> questitem
    //  Int2DefeatCondition(integer) -> defeatcondition
    //  Int2TimerDialog(integer) -> timerdialog
    //  Int2Leaderboard(integer) -> leaderboard
    //  Int2Multiboard(integer) -> multiboard
    //  Int2MultiboardItem(integer) -> multiboarditem
    //  Int2Trackable(integer) -> trackable
    //  Int2Dialog(integer) -> dialog
    //  Int2Button(integer) -> button
    //  Int2TextTag(integer) -> texttag
    //  Int2Ubersplat(integer) -> ubersplat
    //  Int2Region(integer) -> region
    //  Int2FogState(integer) -> fogstate
    //  Int2FogModifier(integer) -> fogmodifier
    //
    //  Requirement :
    //  Wc3 1.24b or newer
    //  Jasshelper 0.A.2.9 or newer
    ///////////////////////////////////////
    library Typecasting
    
        globals
            private hashtable Data = InitHashtable()
        endglobals
    
        //! textmacro Typecasting takes ParentName, parenttype, TypeName, type
        function $ParentName$2$TypeName$ takes $parenttype$ object returns $type$
            call Save$ParentName$Handle(Data,0,0,object)
            return Load$TypeName$Handle(Data,0,0)
        endfunction
        //! endtextmacro
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting ("Agent","agent","Widget","widget")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting ("Agent","agent","Group","group")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting ("Agent","agent","Trigger","trigger")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting ("Agent","agent","Timer","timer")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting ("Agent","agent","Location","location")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting ("Agent","agent","Effect","effect")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting ("Agent","agent","Unit","unit")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting ("Agent","agent","Item","item")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting ("Widget","widget","Unit","unit")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting ("Widget","widget","Destructable","destructable")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting ("Widget","widget","Item","item")
    
        //! textmacro Typecasting_I2X takes TypeName, type
        function Int2$TypeName$ takes integer id returns $type$
            call SaveFogStateHandle(Data,0,0,ConvertFogState(id))
            return Load$TypeName$Handle(Data,0,0)
        endfunction
        //! endtextmacro
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Unit", "unit")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Effect", "effect")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Trigger", "trigger")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Timer", "timer")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Widget", "widget")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Group", "group")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Location", "location")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Item", "item")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Destructable", "destructable")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Ability", "ability")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("TriggerCondition", "triggercondition")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("TriggerAction", "triggeraction")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Force", "force")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Rect", "rect")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Sound", "sound")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("UnitPool", "unitpool")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("ItemPool", "itempool")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Quest", "quest")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("QuestItem", "questitem")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("DefeatCondition", "defeatcondition")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("TimerDialog", "timerdialog")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Leaderboard", "leaderboard")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Multiboard", "multiboard")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("MultiboardItem", "multiboarditem")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Trackable", "trackable")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Dialog", "dialog")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Button", "button")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("TextTag", "texttag")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Image", "image")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Ubersplat", "ubersplat")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("Region", "region")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("FogState", "fogstate")
        //! runtextmacro Typecasting_I2X("FogModifier", "fogmodifier")
    endlibrary
    - In this library, agents,widgets and integers are converted to a given type.



The most widely known custom typecasting method was the Hashtable and ConvertType bug.




[/TD]
[/TD][TD][/TD]


Credits

[TD][/TD][TD]



kingkingyyk3
Bribe
Jesus4Lyf
Azlier
PurgeandFire111
weaaddar
Deaod
[TD][/TD]



All the people above are the people who proposed the Typecasting. PurgeAndFire, though haven't proposed something, was the one who taught me this kind of typecasting
[/TD][TD][/TD]
 
Last edited:
Technically, it is "as of Patch 1.23b the traditional return bug no longer works":
http://forums.battle.net/thread.html?topicId=17730193178

I fixed some small grammar mistakes, and did some minor rephrasing/added spaces. Also, the images for certain users aren't showing up. You can either fix the link or remove the image.

Otherwise the tutorial looks good. From what I can tell, the tutorial seems accurate. Fix the images and that one line and it should be fine.
 
Level 33
Joined
Apr 24, 2012
Messages
5,121
@PurgeAndFire111
They are working for me.
There are some images in Hive that shows for certain users but hides for other users(discovered this in the Maps section)

@Kobas

Kay.Let me try.

edit
@PurgeAndFire111
I see what you mean

Let me fix it.

edit

Updated.
Removed the pictures of the credited users,so that the page won't be dominated by my tutorial
 
Level 33
Joined
Apr 24, 2012
Messages
5,121
Okay I tested something.

It seems that each type of handle has it's designated memory addresses to determine whether or not a handle is valid to that type.

I tried converting an item to a widget, then convert it to a unit. When printing it's handle id, it gives me 0.

I also tried converting the item's id to widget, then convert it to unit. It still gives me 0.

I also tried it for destructables and it also gave me 0.

Thoughts?

Is it because of the hashtable method or is it just that it has an specific memory address?
 
Agents are stored with type information in memory. Hashtables check against those types before loading.

As far as hashtables go, it checks if the type of the object that is stored conforms to the type you are loading. So in your case, you've stored a unit and you are trying to load an item. The native notices that the type unit does not conform to the item type, so it returns null. However, if you try to load it as a widget, it works just fine because unit does conform to widget (unit extends widget).
 
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